Water rights issues are cropping up with increasing frequency as water becomes a diminishing commodity. In the Puget Sound area this is a somewhat ironic concept, as flooding seems to have been on the uptick and the drizzle for which the area is renown has certainly not disappeared. Flooding however is often attributed to logging and development which causes rainwater to become surface water, rather than groundwater, available through wells. The expansion of the population beyond areas served by water systems has created a proliferation of wells, drawing from largely unknown underground estuaries. This increased burden on the supply of water diminishes the quantity of water available to wells, sometimes with disastrous results.
Care must be taken when purchasing water rights or acquiring property with water rights. The value of property is often dependent on water rights but too often property is purchased without a thorough investigation of those water rights. Scrutiny of a title report may give the buyer false confidence in the availability of water.
In verifying the validity of a water source the inquirer enters into the Byzantine realm of Washington water rights, which defy easy explanation. Broadly speaking there are three levels of inquiry. First water systems must be permitted by the State Department of Ecology. However, there are certain exemptions from state permitting requirements and water systems that predate the water code of 1917 need not be permitted. Roughly 166,000 systems claim to have originated before 1917 but very few claims, if any, have been adjudicated. Next the county determines compliance with health requirements and conducts routine inspections. This is usually a fairly straight forward inquiry for the purchaser.
The last common level of inquiry relates to the assignment of water rights. The right to draw water is assignable. As to any water source that is off-site, the validity of the transfer of water rights must be verified. If there is a well on site, all documents transferring rights to others, or allocating rights of use, must be verified. When creating a joint-use well a great deal of difficulty can be avoided by carefully delineating each user’s rights and duties. This warrants as much care as the determination of the rights and regulations governing a home owners’ association.